‘Cinema Treasures’ Book Now On Sale!

posted by Ross Melnick on October 4, 2004 at 6:24 am

After nearly two years of research and contributions by theaters and archives around the country, Cinema Treasures, by Ross Melnick and Andreas Fuchs, is now on sale at bookstores around the country!

Celebrating the history of moviegoing in the United States over the past 100 years, this book will not only interest anyone working in or studying motion picture exhibition, but just about everyone who loves to go to the movies.

Complimenting this survey of the development of U.S. theatrical exhibition — from the penny arcade and nickelodeon pioneers, to the designers and showmen of the movie palace era, the drive-in developers and widescreen visionaries, and the theater circuits of today — Cinema Treasures features hundreds of contemporary and archival images and ephemera.

The book also contains 30 detailed profiles of theaters still showing movies today. Having survived decades of technological and social change they remain vibrant “Cinema Treasures” to their respective communities.

Cinema Treasures is also a great gift for family and friends. One glance at the breathtaking images of the AFI Silver Film and Cultural Center in Silver Spring, MD, the Palace Theatre in Canton, OH, or the Strand-Capitol in York, PA, for instance, should explain to anyone why saving our classic theaters is a vital part of preserving our cultural and architectural heritage.

To purchase your copy of Cinema Treasures (ISBN 0-7603-1492-6), visit any of the websites below or ask for it at your local bookstore.

Domestic:
Motorbooks.com
Amazon
Barnes & Noble
Wal-Mart
Books-A-Million
Powells
Buy.com

International:
Amazon (Canada)
Amazon (UK)
Amazon (France)
Amazon (Germany)

Thank you so much for your continued support of Cinema Treasures over the years. We hope you enjoy this book as much as we enjoyed writing it.

See you at the movies,
Cinema Treasures

Also — please visit our special book website for a detailed look inside Cinema Treasures!

Comments (22)

Menutia
Menutia on October 4, 2004 at 7:31 am

I’ve ordered mine!

Congratulations guys!

~Michael

Cariad
Cariad on October 4, 2004 at 7:35 am

Congrats! I love reading and looking at pictures from “Ticket to Paradise” and I’m sure “Cinema Treasures” will be even better!

claydoh77
claydoh77 on October 4, 2004 at 8:26 am

I was wondering, I ran into this on eBay last week and wondered if it was officially released. Looks like it will be good. Congrats on the completion.

sdoerr
sdoerr on October 4, 2004 at 11:53 am

congrats, hope to get mine soon

Roger Katz
Roger Katz on October 4, 2004 at 12:42 pm

Cool! I can’t wait to get this book!

UAGirl
UAGirl on October 4, 2004 at 2:00 pm

Ordered a few for Christmas gifts. :)

CinemAFuchs
CinemAFuchs on October 4, 2004 at 6:21 pm

Thank you for all the good wishes. We are very excited and hope that you will enjoy the book.
Best, Ross & Andreas.

JasonBalch
JasonBalch on October 5, 2004 at 9:43 am

Many congratulations! Ordered my copy today, can’t wait to receive it.

Ken Roe
Ken Roe on October 6, 2004 at 8:03 am

Just heard from Amazon.com that my copy is winging its way to me. Looking forward to receiving it and adding it to my collection. Congratulations!

DaveWiegers
DaveWiegers on November 7, 2004 at 6:39 am

Ross, Just saw you on CBS Sunday Morning. I hope this helps book sales and rasing more awareness of the remaining historic theaters.

Dave

Ron Newman
Ron Newman on December 6, 2004 at 3:20 pm

Is there any way to look up on this site which theatres are featured in the book?

carolgrau
carolgrau on April 4, 2005 at 10:58 am

I will be going out today to buy one. I can`t wait to start reading it.
Dave Grau (Mungo)
Norelco

Bud K
Bud K on July 28, 2006 at 5:34 am

I enjoyed every single page of this Book, it is a Treasure to own it
and now sits Stately on my coffee table right infront of my Home
Big Screen, Hopefully the guys will right another book Cinema Tragedies The Stories of what has left us – The San Francisco Fox,
The Michigan in Detroit and the Cooper and Indian Hills as Examples

We still have our Treasures but always keep reminding people of the
Blunders and Tragedies that some of these idiots made.

Thanks Ross and Andreas
BUD

Playhousegoer
Playhousegoer on December 30, 2009 at 5:54 pm

Got this as a Christmas present (2009) and was overwhelmed at its beauty. First saw it here, and then went through, once called Ottakar’s and now, Waterstones: View link

When is the European version coming-out? Paris, London, Berlin’s cinema treasures etc…!!???
Beautiful, charming, interesting! And just what Cinema needs…thank you guy’s…

View link

TLSLOEWS
TLSLOEWS on April 18, 2011 at 3:05 pm

I am trying to find a copy.

kenelit
kenelit on November 5, 2013 at 9:03 pm

Western reconnaissance is focusing on a small garage at a remote site in the Libyan desert, though nothing untoward has been seen so far. New digital tools are making fiction more immersive and improving audience engagement, writes Naomi AldermanLet me begin by saying: reports of the death of the book

are wildly exaggerated. Likewise traditional storytelling. Human beings have been telling stories around campfires since the first cavewoman struck a flint against another flint and noticed that an interesting spark flew off. Stories aren’t going anywhere and nor is the visceral, inexplicable, bone-deep shivery delight of a good tale well told.What
happens, however, is that new technologies give creative people new ideas. Art and science (or technology) are often imagined to be totally separate – but this is not, and never has been, true. Art is affected by the technology of art, because artists love to experiment, and every new development is a new tool.This is where we are now with storytelling: interesting developments are happening. New tools are being created so fast that it’s hard to keep up with them.
It’s a good time, a fascinating one, and in the end these developments do as much to help us recapture the past of storytelling as to invent their future.I write serious literary novels – and I write videogames. I’m not alone in combining these two areas of creativity, although from the responses I sometimes get you’d think I’d announced I was a meat-eating vegetarian or a promiscuous celibate. I was lead writer on the groundbreaking alternate reality game Perplex City, and I’m now lead writer and co-creator (with games company Six to Start) of Zombies, Run! – a running game and audio adventure for smartphones. I teach both creative writing and digital media as a professor at Bath Spa University.Three things really fascinate me about the new digital writing toolkit: the possibility of increased immersion

in a story, the ability to represent choice, and the way the audience can

influence the story. I’ll take them one by one.ImmersionZombies, Run! is a pretty immersive experience. The player is Runner Five – you live in a small outpost of humanity among a sea of zombies, and you have to go out running to get supplies.
That’s you really running, in the real world. Yes, it’s a game you have to get off your bum to play. We track where you go via GPS and an accelerometer, reward you with (fictional) item pickups, and tell you a story in audio drama clips that alternate with tracks of your own music.Directly
addressing the audience while they do precisely what the character they’re playing in the game does is not available to novelists – unless they want to write a lot of Calvinoesque novels about people reading novels.
But it’s hugely immersive and engaging.
We’ve had thousands of players report that they’ve sobbed while running, at an emotional story moment, or checked behind them for (fictional) zombies.Representing choiceGames and digital media are also excellent at representing decision-making.
In a novel or a movie one can observe a character choosing something, of course, but the multiplicity of possible futures one senses when in a difficult quandary are harder to denote. Showing that feels slightly odd; like the multiple endings of natural vitiligo treatment review natural vitiligo treatment Lieutenant’s Woman. It reminds me of cave paintings in Chauvet – where buffalo are drawn with eight legs to signify movement. We know what they mean, but we now have a technology even better at expressing movement: movies.Similarly,
digital media naturally express choice.
Playing an interactive fiction like Slouching Towards Bedlam or First Draft of the Revolution (the work of the genius Emily Short), multiple outcomes are built into the format. Again, the person experiencing the emotions and thoughts of the character – and making their decisions – is you.Audience participationAudience participation in storytelling got

a bad reputation in the 1980s with “vote for what you want to happen next” experiments, which often went badly. But with a writer onboard to steer the audience – or to pick their best ideas, as

in the Southbank’s currently-running Exquisite Corpse

project – a work can benefit from the best ideas of dozens, or thousands of minds. In this way, via the internet, we come right back to campfire storytelling; a single tale-spinner, yes, but a whole audience to shout out ideas if the teller runs dry.There’s no need for any writer to explore these possibilities if they’re not excited by them.
The

book’s not going anywhere. People will still watch movies. Not everyone wants an immersive experience where they’re called on to make decisions and participate.
But for those who find these ideas intriguing, it’s a very interesting time.Naomi
Alderman is the keynote speaker at Bath Spa University’s Making Day on Wednesday 17 July, programmed by The Writing Platform – find out more and book your place hereThis content is brought to you by Guardian Professional. To get more articles like this direct to your inbox, sign up free to become a member of the Culture Professionals Network.DigitalAudiencesNaomi
Aldermanguardian.co.uk © 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.
All rights reserved.
| Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds    Amid onset of across-the-board spending cuts and an impasse

with Republican leaders, President Obama is looking to rank-and-file Republican senators.
Ancient animal’s DNA may settle

debate over equine evolution The MIT Sea Grant College Program has announced that nominations are now open for the Doherty Professorship in Ocean Utilization. All non-tenured MIT faculty members from any Institute department are eligible.
Department heads may submit one nomination every year.
The deadline for nominations is Nov. 16.
The person appointed to the chair will

receive $25,000 per year for two years, beginning July 1, 2012.Endowed by the Henry L. and Grace Doherty Charitable Foundation, the two-year chair opens the way for promising, non-tenured

professors to undertake marine-related research that will further innovative uses of the ocean’s resources.
There are no restrictions on the area of research, and any aspect of marine use and/or management may be addressed, whether social, political, environmental, economic or

technical.Final selection will be made by a committee that includes the vice president and dean for research, the dean of engineering, the dean of science, the chairman of the Sea Grant Committee and the director of the MIT Sea Grant College Program, following review and recommendations from the Sea Grant Faculty Committee.
The vice president for research will appoint the new Doherty Professor in January 2012.
While i want my girlfriend back the Doherty Assistant or Associate Professor of Ocean Utilization, the incumbent cannot hold another MIT-funded chair.In 2011, the award went to Kripa

Varanasi, Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, for his work titled, “Nanoengineered Surfaces for Hydrate Mitigation in Subsea Oil and Gas Operations.”
Varanasi will conduct fundamental research on emulsions under subsea conditions. Currently, very little is known — for example, the physicochemical and environmental effects of the demulsifiers used to break down oil in the Macondo oil well blowout are unknown.Anyone wishing to be nominated should contact his or her

department head. For nomination procedures and selection criteria, consult the website, or contact Kathy de Zengotita, Room E38-330, 617-253-7042, .
BEYOND THE CRASH Overcoming the First Crisis of Globalization By Gordon Brown Free Press.
314 pp.
$26 For a brief, shining moment, the world stood together, and Gordon Brown was its voice. On an April afternoon in 2009, as global markets stared down the abyss and the

specter

of a second Great … Following the eventful Champions League clash at Old Trafford, we take a look at the press reactionJonny Weeks Itâ€\s a dream of many hobbyists: turning their leisure pursuits into a lucrative business.
Thatâ€\s what

happened for MIT alumna Limor Fried â€\03, MEng â€\05, whose pastime — tinkering with electronics — not only gave rise to a profitable company, but also positioned her as a leader of a technology revolution.Since
childhood, Fried has built, tweaked and otherwise modified (or “hacked”) electronic devices, sometimes creating her own unique gadgets. Eventually, at MIT and beyond, she would sell these products — while freely sharing their design plans online — through her startup, Adafruit Industries.
Now, following that formula, Adafruit has become a multimillion-dollar company thatâ€\s been called a leader in the open-source hardware industry.
And Fried, now Adafruitâ€\s CEO, is lauded as a pioneer of the “maker movement,” a rising culture emphasizing do-it-yourself technology that has proved to be a profitable niche.In January, Fried — known by her online pseudonym “Ladyada,” after a 19th-century female mathematician — was named “Entrepreneur of the Year” by Entrepreneur magazine. Last year, she was

the first female engineer featured on the cover of Wired, and was included on Fast Companyâ€\s “Most Influential Women in Technology”

list.
In 2009, she was awarded a Pioneer Award by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a digital-rights group. “There are many amazing people working hard and inspiring the maker movement every single day,” Fried says of her tech-celebrity status.
“We all have our roles and little parts we can do to make the world a better place through learning and sharing.”Adafruit
primarily sells “kits” of build-your-own electronic devices, complete with open-source licenses, encouraging customers to modify the final products. But its primary focus is on teaching the world engineering, Fried says — “an educational company that just happens to have a gift shop at the end,” as she puts it.While
flattered by the publicity, Fried hopes her fame across makerdom will help promote science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education — and show that thereâ€\s a way

to combine a passion for engineering with entrepreneurship. “I think this represents opportunity for more makers and hackers to see itâ€\s possible to be a good cause and a Shapeshifter Yoga review she says.
“Anyone who wants to help teach people electronics and make things can make a business out of it.”Powering
through with MITEight years ago, Fried was still an MIT graduate student, wading through the uncertainty of designing her first Adafruit products. By day, she was a student in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; by night, she was a hopeful entrepreneur.
“I would spend a few hours doing classwork, and then at night

work on projects and kits that would inspire Adafruit,” she says.
But MIT — with its emphasis on diligence and experimentation — became a safe haven.
“MIT is a great place to come face-to-face with what you know and

what you donâ€\t know, and to power through the discomfort of not knowing 100 percent of what youâ€\re doing,” she says.Many of her experiments took

place in MITERS, a student-run lab stocked with electrical engineering equipment and “a great

resource for creative engineering,” Fried says.
There, she developed some

of her early commercial devices — such the MiniPOV, whose LED display makes words appear to be floating in air, and the Minty MP3 player, which fits inside an Altoids tin. (A version of the latter, the MintyBoost Kit — an Altoids tin-based charger for portable devices — is now Adafruitâ€\s best-seller, with more than 50,000 units sold.)Fried provided the design plans for these devices through her personal website and, in 2005, began selling preassembled kits to a steady influx of customers — laying the foundation for Adafruit, which Fried would officially open a year later in New York.Adafruit
now operates out of a new, 12,000-square-foot industrial space in Lower Manhattan, ships hundreds of products per day, and has more than 50 employees.
Last year, the company sold about $10 million worth of its famed do-it-yourself kits. Looking back,

Fried says the competitive, entrepreneurial ecosystem at MIT helped inspire her to launch her business.
“The entrepreneurial culture is strong at MIT,” she says, “and when I saw how many of my friends were starting companies out of college it made me think, ‘Hey, if they can do it, I can do it too. Letâ€\s do this thing!â€\ I think thatâ€\s part of the healthy competition that MIT is known for.”Creating
a culture of

makersAs a maker-movement pioneer, Fried says she hopes to inspire a “culture of makers” by sparking peopleâ€\s interest in building not only their own electronics, but also their own tech startups. “Adafruit not only wants to make more makers, we want to help inspire people to make businesses — and make even more makers,” she says.
Apart from selling kits, original devices and providing hundreds of guides online, Adafruit works around the world with schools, teachers, libraries and hackerspaces — community technology labs — to promote STEM education, designing curricula in circuitry and electronics, among other initiatives.
The company has released an online childrenâ€\s show called “A is for Ampere.”
On a weekly Saturday night program, “Ask an Engineer,” anyone can ask Fried questions online or show off their original devices.One of Friedâ€\s favorite stories, from a young viewer of “Ask an Engineer,” illuminates what she sees as the growing diversity of engineering.
“A parent emailed us after watching the show with his daughter,” she says. directory of ezine another engineer on the show with me — my friend Amanda — and this parentâ€\s daughter asked, ‘Dad, are there boy engineers too?â€\” Ultimately, Fried says, her mission is inspiring everyone to be makers and entrepreneurs. “If thereâ€\s one thing Iâ€\d like to see from this,” she says, “it would be for some kid to say, ‘I could do that,â€\ and start the journey to becoming an engineer and entrepreneur.”
For a small group of the young, digital elite, Enstitute seeks to challenge the conventional wisdom that top professional jobs always require a bachelorâ€\s degree.     An extensive exhibition at Mana Contemporary in Jersey City provides a larger perspective behind the Japanese photographerâ€\s erotic works.     NEW ORLEANS – Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper Jr.
said Tuesday

that he has won a “conceptual agreement” to remove the $53 billion national intelligence budget from Pentagon control and place it under his purview by 2013, as part of an effort to enhance his authority over the U.S…. Mayor Vincent C. Gray, who plans to name a permanent schools chancellor this week, said Monday that he was “comfortable” with a search process that has focused on just one name: Interim Chancellor Kaya Henderson.
As Bob Stoops prepares to lead Oklahoma onto the practice field this spring, the new faces in prominent roles are plentiful.
Kamila Shamsie is impressed by a visceral debut about Iran’s darkest momentsChildren of the Jacaranda Tree is a novel with a great weight of history attached to it.
This much is made explicit by the author’s note that accompanies the proof copies, telling readers that this is “an attempt … to shed light on this dark moment in Iranian history, on its tales of violence, prison and death … to give voice not only to the victims of this atrocity but also to the ordeal of their families and their children”. The “dark moment” is 1988, when thousands, or tens of thousands, of political prisoners were assassinated in Iran; their number included Sahar Delijani’s uncle.
Her parents were fortunate to have been released from prison prior to the “purge”.At
the start of the novel it seems that Delijani has placed too great a pressure on herself to find the language and structure to relate such a terrible tale. The first chapter tells the story of a political prisoner giving birth in Tehran’s Evin prison, knowing that her child will soon be taken away from her. The language is too overheated to be

convincing, and there are a confusing number of character names mentioned – several women prisoners, their unseen relatives, a male guard. Many of these characters play, at most, a minor role, and the author’s lack of control seems the most obvious explanation.But as the book continues it becomes apparent that there is a clear purpose behind the naming. Each chapter tells the story of a different person connected to that original prison cell, and every named character from the first chapter becomes significant, directly or through their children, at some point in the book. At the centre of the web of connections are three women prisoners – Azar, who gives birth in prison; Firoozeh, who is known to have turned informant in exchange for prison privileges; Parisa, who has one child growing up outside prison and is pregnant with a second.
forex growth bot women and their families a narrative emerges that is more effective than one that cleaves to an individual. The pain of women prisoners who have to give up their children; the pain of parents and sisters who don’t know what is happening to those they love who are imprisoned; the pain of letting go of the nephews and nieces you’ve been raising, when their mothers are finally released from prison; the pain of suppressing the truth; the pain of discovering the truth; the pain of leaving Iran, the pain of staying and the pain of return: all these are held within these linked stories.The novel is at its best with the stories of the younger generation – the children who spent their childhoods separated from their imprisoned parents.
Some of them have moved away from Iran, others have stayed, but the ties that bind them to each other and to their country remain strong.
It is this second generation that takes to the streets in Iran’s “green  revolution” of 2009 and faces the violent reprisals that follow. In the final chapter, Neda – who was the baby whose birth opens the novel – is in Italy, the country that has become her home, along with an Iranian man, Reza, who has recently arrived in Turin. The fascination and slight edge of guilt with which an expatriate approaches someone who has continued to be part of their shared nation’s history is well evoked, as is the moment when Reza speaks of his shock at the regime’s brutality and Neda’s response is anger – “Your worst nightmares came true twenty-three years ago”, she wants to shout at him. Although the English-speaking world may be the first readers of this novel, it seems clear that

Delijani’s more immediate concern is with reminding Iranians (expatriate or otherwise) of their own history – this is not an “explaining Iran to those who don’t know it” book, but something far more visceral.Though there are migrants in this novel, it doesn’t follow the familiar trajectory of characters escaping a place of brutality for the safety of the west – characters flee to Italy, Germany and America, but it is always Iran that remains central. In the safety of a Turin cafe, when Neda hears Reza talk about the green revolution, instead of feeling gratitude for being in a place of greater security, she feels “a shiver of envy at the thought of him having been there, having partaken in that moment when history turned”. It makes her question her own right to “tell any story, speak of any memory that is larger than that”.
But by the time the book draws to a close, with far greater power than it opened, Delijani has done the work of showing us how those stories and memories are all entwined, and should never be forgotten.• Kamila Shamsie’s Burnt Shadows is published by Bloomsbury.FictionIranMiddle East and North AfricaKamila Shamsieguardian.co.uk © 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies.
All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds     It’s no secret that morale is a problem at the Homeland Security Department, created three years ago in a mega-merger that pulled

together 185,000 employees working in more than 220 occupations.
European Union finance

ministers reached a plan that trademiner download the order in which shareholders, creditors and others would cover losses suffered when banks collapse.    

Researchers

at MIT have developed a new way of controlling the motion of magnetic domains — the key technology in magnetic memory systems, such as a computerâ€\s hard disk.
The new approach requires little power to write and no power to maintain the stored information, and could lead to a new generation of extremely low-power data storage.The new approach controls magnetism by applying a voltage, rather than a magnetic field. It could lead to magnetic storage devices in which data is written on microscopic nanowires or tracks, with magnetic “bits” of data

hurtling along them like cars on a racetrack.The
new findings are described in a paper published this week in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, written by assistant professor of materials science and engineering Geoffrey Beach and graduate students Uwe Bauer and Satoru Emori.“For hundreds of years, if you had a magnetic material and you wanted to change the direction in which the material was magnetized, you needed another magnet,” Beach explains. His teamâ€\s work represents an entirely new way to switch magnetic states using just a change in voltage, with no magnetic field — a much lower-power process. Whatâ€\s more, once the magnetic state is switched, it holds that change, providing stable data storage that requires no power except during reading and writing. The researchers show that this effect can be used to enable new concepts such as “racetrack memory,” with magnetic bits speeding along a magnetic track. While there have been laboratory demonstrations of such devices, none have come close to viability for data storage: The missing piece has been a means to precisely control the position and to electrically select individual magnetic bits racing along the magnetic track. “Magnetic fields are very hard to localize,” Beach says: If youâ€\re trying to create tiny magnetic bits on a nanowire or track, the magnetic fields from the electromagnets used to read and write data tend to spread out, making it difficult to prevent interaction with adjacent strips, especially as devices get smaller and smaller.But
the new system can precisely select individual magnetic bits represented by tiny domains in a nanowire. The MIT device can stop the movement of magnetic domains hurtling at 20 meters per second, or about 45 mph, “on a dime,” Beach says. They can then be released

on demand simply by toggling the applied voltage.To achieve this feat, the MIT team built a new type of device that controls magnetism in much the same way that a transistor controls a flow of electricity. The key ingredient is a layer of ion-rich material in which atoms have been stripped of electrons, leaving them with an electric charge.
A voltage applied to a small electrode above this thin layer can either attract or repel those ions; the ions, in turn, can modify the properties of an underlying magnet and halt the flow of magnetic domains. This could lead to a new family of “magneto-ionic” devices, the researchers suggest.The effect depends on chemical interactions at the boundary between thin layers of magnetic metal and solid-state electrolyte materials that are sandwiched together, Beach says. “So itâ€\s really the interfacial chemistry that determines the magnetic properties,” he says.In practice, tinnitusmiracle system would use a wire or strip of ferromagnetic material with a series of regularly spaced, small electrodes on top of it.
The magnetic bits

between these electrodes can then be selectively

written or read. Once the orientation of the magnetic bit between

two electrodes has been set by this device, “it inherently will retain its direction and position even in the absence of power,” Beach says.
So, in practice, you could set a magnetic bit, “then turn the power off until you need to read it back,” he says.Because the magnetic switching requires no magnetic field, “there is next to no energy dissipation,” Beach says. Whatâ€\s more, the resulting pinning of the magnetic bits is extremely strong, resulting in a stable storage system.The
key ingredients of the system are “very simple oxide materials,” Bauer says. In particular, these tests used gadolinium oxide, which is already used in making capacitors and in semiconductor manufacturing. Dan Allwood, a researcher in materials physics at the University of Sheffield who was not involved in this research, says that it “not only offers a novel technical path to control dynamic magnetization processes in patterned nanostructures, but in doing so also presents new physical processes in how voltage can influence magnetic behavior more generally. Understanding the detailed origins of these effects could allow the creation of simple, low-power information-technology devices.”In
addition to magnetic storage systems, the MIT team says, this technology could also be used to create new electronic devices based on

spintronics,

in which information is carried by the spin orientation of the atoms. “It opens up a whole new domain,” Beach says.
“You can do both data storage and computation, potentially at much lower power.”The work was supported by the

National Science Foundation. Bringing

the concept of an “artificial leaf” closer to reality, a team of researchers at MIT has published a detailed analysis of all the factors that could limit the efficiency of such a system.
The new analysis lays out a roadmap for a research program to improve the efficiency of these systems, and could quickly lead to the production of a practical, inexpensive and commercially viable prototype.Such a system would use sunlight to produce a storable fuel, such as hydrogen, instead of electricity for immediate use.
This fuel could then be used on demand to generate electricity through a fuel cell or other device. This process would liberate solar energy for use when the sun isnâ€\t shining, and open up a host of potential new applications.The new work is described in a paper

this week

in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by associate professor of mechanical engineering Tonio Buonassisi, former MIT professor Daniel Nocera (now at Harvard University), MIT postdoc Mark

Winkler (now at IBM) and former MIT graduate student Casandra Cox (now at Harvard).
It follows up on 2011 research that produced a “proof of concept” of an artificial leaf — a small device that, when placed in a container of water and exposed to sunlight, would produce bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen.The device combines two technologies: a standard silicon solar cell, which converts sunlight into electricity, and chemical catalysts applied to each side of the cell. Together, these would create an electrochemical device that uses an electric current Fibroids Miracle download atoms of hydrogen and oxygen from the water molecules surrounding them.The goal is to produce an inexpensive, self-contained system that could be built from abundant materials.
Nocera has long advocated such devices as a means of bringing

electricity to billions of people, mostly in the developing world, who now have little or no access to it.“Whatâ€\s significant is that this paper really describes all

this technology that is known, and what to expect if we put it all together,” Cox says. “It points out all the challenges, and then you can experimentally address each challenge separately.”Winkler adds that this is a “pretty robust analysis that looked at whatâ€\s the best you could do with market-ready technology.”The original demonstration leaf, in 2011, had low efficiencies, converting less than 4.7
percent of sunlight into fuel, Buonassisi says. But the teamâ€\s new analysis shows that

efficiencies of 16 percent or more should now be possible using single-bandgap semiconductors, such as crystalline silicon.“We were surprised, actually,” Winkler says: Conventional wisdom held that the characteristics of silicon solar cells would severely limit their effectiveness in splitting water, but that turned out not to be the case. “Youâ€\ve just got to question the conventional wisdom sometimes,” he says.The key to obtaining high solar-to-fuel efficiencies is to combine the right solar cells and catalyst — a matchmaking activity best guided by a roadmap.
The approach presented by the team allows for each component of the artificial leaf to be tested individually, then combined.The voltage produced by a standard silicon solar cell, about 0.7
volts, is insufficient to power the water-splitting reaction, which needs more than 1.2
volts. One solution is to pair multiple solar cells in series.
While this leads to some losses at the interface between the cells, it is a promising direction for the research, Buonassisi says. An additional source of inefficiency is the water itself — the pathway that the electrons must traverse to complete the electrical circuit — which has resistance

to the electrons, Buonassisi says.
So another way to improve efficiency would be to lower that resistance, perhaps by reducing the distance that ions must travel through the liquid.“The solution resistance is challenging,” Cox says. But, she adds, there are “some tricks” that might help to reduce that resistance, such as reducing the distance between the two sides of the reaction by using interleaved plates.“In
our simulations, we have a framework to determine the limits of efficiency” that are possible with such a system, Buonassisi says. For a system based on conventional silicon solar cells, he says, that limit is about 16 percent; for gallium arsenide cells, a widely touted alternative, the limit rises to 18 percent.Models
to determine the theoretical limits of a given system often lead researchers to pursue the development of new systems that approach those limits, Buonassisi says. “Itâ€\s usually from these kinds of models that someone gets the courage to go ahead and make the improvements,” he says.“Some of the most impactful papers are ones that identify a performance limit,” Buonassisi says. But, he adds, thereâ€\s a “dose of humility” in looking back at

some earlier projections for the limits of solar-cell efficiency: Some of those predicted “limits” have already been exceeded, he says.
“We donâ€\t always get it right,” vision without glasses but such an analysis “lays a roadmap for development and identifies a few ‘leversâ€\ that can be worked on.”James Barber, the Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College London, who was not connected with this work, says, “It is generally agreed that for an effective technology to emerge, the efficiency of the device must be 10 percent or more.”
The MIT teamâ€\s work suggests such devices “can provide efficiencies as high as 15 percent.
This level of energy conversion is considered very good and practical.”Barber adds that a next step,

demonstrating these improvements in a functioning device, is crucial: “It is very important to construct a working system which has a large surface area and operates with solar energy under open field conditions for a long period of time, as is done with the testing of solar cells.” If this can be achieved, he says, “the construction of robust and efficient solar-driven modules which produce hydrogen from water on a large industrial scale would have considerable impact on human society.”The work was supported by the National Science Foundation, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Singapore National Research Foundation through the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, and the Chesonis Family Foundation.
Until redrawn maps are finalized, and the rates revised, neither homeowners nor lenders can accurately estimate the affordability of future premiums.     The bride is an obstetrician and gynecologist; the groom is an M.B.A. student at Yale.
“Moâ€\ Meta Blues,” a memoir by Ahmir Thompson, better known as Questlove, tells the story of his rise to musical fame.    
At least 20 people were killed in the attack, and possibly many more, as the fire from the explosions spread to nearby buses.
Mapping the human brain, with its billions of

neurons, is one of scienceâ€\s most elusive projects.
But a new federal program — the $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative — could help neuroscientists at MIT and other

institutions unlock some of the brainâ€\s mysteries.
How will MIT contribute to the initiativeâ€\s goals? How will the initiative impact research already being done at MIT and in the Boston area? How will science benefit? Robert Desimone, the Doris and Don Berkey Professor of

Neuroscience and director of MITâ€\s McGovern Institute for Brain Research — and one of four MIT researchers selected to attend the initiativeâ€\s White House announcement on April 2 — discussed these questions with MIT News. Q. What types of new technologies will be developed to achieve the goals of the initiative? And what are the benefits of the initiative, in terms of better understanding the human brain and treatment of neurological disorders?A. Among the technologies being discussed are large arrays of nanoscale electrodes; robotic devices for massively parallel whole-cell recordings; new

optical methods for imaging activity deep within the brain; and tools from molecular genetics that would allow neurons to store records of their own activity and which we could read out at a later time. We also need better ways to assess biological measures beyond electrical activity — gene expression, for example.
Much of this work will be done in animal models, but we must also develop noninvasive methods so we can relate what we learn from animals to what can be measured Pregnancy Miracle review subjects.
And finally, we will also need new analytical methods, including a lot of computing power, if we are to make sense of all these new data and to understand how 100 billion neurons can work together as a system. When neurons interact with each other in large numbers, new

phenomena emerge — much as new social

phenomena emerge when large numbers of people interact in groups. Understanding these large-scale interactions will be important if we are to understand the basis of both normal behavior and the altered behaviors seen in many brain disorders. There is evidence that both autism and schizophrenia, for example, involve abnormal synchronous activity across widespread neural populations.
Q.
What will MITâ€\s role be in the initiative? How will MIT collaborate with other Boston-area institutions (and institutions around the nation) to achieve the initiativeâ€\s goals?A. MIT is well-positioned to contribute to the BRAIN Initiative, as many of our researchers are already leaders in developing new technologies for neuroscience. One example is optogenetics, a method for controlling brain activity with light that is already revolutionizing the field. At the McGovern Institute, we have established a neurotechnology program that provides seed funding for neuroscientists to work with engineers, computer scientists, materials scientists and so on, both within and beyond MIT.
Weâ€\ve already supported more than 20 such projects, some of which have now turned into major research

programs.
Weâ€\re very fortunate to have so many top research and clinical institutions in Boston, and we have strong collaborations with many of them. The Martinos Center at the McGovern Institute, where we do human neuroimaging, shares strong ties with its

sister center at Massachusetts General Hospital, and also has collaborations

with many other local hospitals and universities.
Some of us are also members of a Boston-wide initiative to understand the activity of large neural populations, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. We also have faculty affiliated with the Broad Institute, and with the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, which is tremendously helpful for our work on psychiatric disease.  Q.
How will the initiative affect the research already being done at MIT and other facilities in the Boston area, including MITâ€\s neighbors in Kendall Square?A. MIT labs will apply for funding through the BRAIN Initiative as soon as the funding mechanisms are established.
Many of us hope that President Obamaâ€\s support will encourage private foundations and individuals to contribute. MIT has a strong track record of working with industry, and we will certainly need to do that if our discoveries are to lead to new therapies. Kendall Square has a great concentration of biotech and high-tech companies, and several large pharmaceutical companies also have a strong presence here.
I see them as natural collaborators on the BRAIN Initiative, especially given the huge unmet need for new treatments for brain disease. Beyond new therapies, I believe the new technologies developed through BRAIN will lead to many other spinoff products, from new optical devices to intelligent machines.
The president said it well: Scientific research has had a great return on investment. Before he became Pope

Francis, Argentina’s Catholic leader took the first steps toward granting sainthood status to priests and other Catholics who were murdered in July 1976 as Argentina’s dictatorship was killing thousands of so-called

tortino
tortino on April 3, 2014 at 8:56 pm

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